white phosphorus vietnam

White phosphorus is believed to have been first used by Fenian arsonists in the 19th century in the form of a solution in carbon disulfide. Phosphorus al… When phosphorus burns in air, it first forms diphosphorus pentoxide (which exists as tetraphosphorus decoxide except at very high temperatures): Diphosphorus pentoxide is extremely hygroscopic and quickly absorbs even minute traces of moisture to form liquid droplets of phosphoric acid: Since an atom of phosphorus has an atomic mass of 31 but a molecule of phosphoric acid has a molecular mass of 98, the cloud is already 68% by mass derived from the atmosphere (i.e. During the war in Vietnam, the U.S. used white phosphorous as an improved form of napalm, terrorizing enemies. US-led forces in #Iraq and #Syria are accused of using white #phosphorus bombs. Extensive exposure by burning and ingestion is fatal. As an incendiary weapon, white phosphorus burns fiercely and can set cloth, fuel, ammunition and other combustibles o… One reason why this occurs is the tendency of the element to stick to the skin. The USA signed Protocols I and II on 24 March 1995 under the Clinton Administration (and the amended article II on 24 May 1999) and later Protocols III, IV, and V, on 21 January 2009 under the Obama Administration. Wounds contaminated by white phosphorus … White phosphorus munitions were used extensively in Korea, Vietnam and later by Russian forces in Chechnya. Ferrophosphorus, a combination of phosphorus with iron, is used as an ingredient in high-strength low-alloy steel. White Phosphorus in Spec Ops: The Line and the Transition of FPS Shooters The player character, Captain Martin Walker. yellow phosphorus p4 99. [11] However, that protocol also specifically excludes weapons whose incendiary effects are secondary, such as smoke grenades. Weapons used by Vietnamese irregular forces, http://ihl.ihlresearch.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.viewpage&pageid=2105, The Legality of the Use of White Phosphorus by the United States Military During the 2004 Fallujah Assaults. The appearance of this cloud forming is easily recognised; one sees a shower of burning particles spraying outward, followed closely by distinctive streamers of white smoke, which rapidly coalesce into a fluffy, very pure white cloud (unless illuminated by a coloured light source). 00 mts /isotank yellow phosphorus p4 99. These were improvised anti-tank weapons, hastily fielded in 1940 when the British were awaiting a German invasion after losing the bulk of their modern armaments in France in May 1940. In addition, the many organic compounds of… The Goldstone Report showcases lies about white phosphorus. The M34 WP Grenade replaced the World War II M15 WP grenade. Because the WP smoke is formed from fairly hot combustion, the gasses in the cloud are hot, and tend to rise. White phosphorus can cause injuries and even death in three ways: by burning deep into tissue, by being inhaled as a smoke, and by being ingested. When the carbon disulfide evaporated, the phosphorus would burst into flames, and probably also ignite the highly flammable carbon disulfide fumes. It was used by Saddam Husayn in 1988, and by the US in Fallujah in 2003–2004. The M34 White Phosphorus Smoke Grenade or "Whiskey Pete" was a smoke / incendiary grenade manufactured by Rocky Mountain Arsenal from the late 1950s and used by U.S. forces during the Vietnam War and was also used during the First Gulf War. The convention is meant to prohibit weapons that are "dependent on the use of the toxic properties of chemicals as a method of warfare" (Article II, Definitions, 9, "Purposes not Prohibited" c.). White phosphorus is used industrially to manufacture chemicals used in fertilizers, food additives, and cleaning compounds. Other approaches include white phosphorus-soaked felt pads (which also burn more slowly, and pose a reduced risk of incendiarism) and PWP, or plasticised white phosphorus. An annex lists chemicals that fall under this definition and WP is not listed in the Schedules of chemical weapons or precursors.[8]. The U.S. Army and Marines used white phosphorus shells in 107-mm (4.2 inch) mortars. But white phosphorus continued to be used by the US in Korea, Vietnam and later by Russian forces in the First and Second Chechen Wars (1994–2000). White phosphorus was widely credited by Allied soldiers for breaking up German infantry attacks and creating havoc among enemy troop concentrations during the latter part of the war. This has often been read as excluding white phosphorus munitions from this protocol, as well. The same protocol prohibits the use of said incendiary weapons against civilians (already forbidden by the Geneva Conventions) or in civilian areas. Red phosphorus ("RP") burns cooler than WP and eliminates a few other disadvantages as well, but offers exactly the same weight efficiency. At the start of the Normandy campaign, 20% of American 81mm mortar rounds were white phosphorus. White phosphorus munitions can be used on battlefields to make smoke screens, generate illumination, mark targets or burn bunkers and buildings. It has a high vapor pressure and will readily sublimate when exposed to air. Other common names include WP, and the slang term "Willie Pete," which is dated from its use in Vietnam, and is still sometimes used in military jargon. Saddam Hussein dropped it on the Kurds. According to family members who survived, there was intense fire and white smoke in the room, the walls of which were glowing red. The only one fielded was the Grenade, No. Over seventy years after the end of hostilities, the effects of WWII still linger. on whether white phosphorus should be considered a chemical weapon and thus be outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) which went into effect in April 1997. The use of incendiary weapons against civilians was banned by signatory countries in the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Protocol III. Officially white phosphorus is an incendiary weapon, not a chemical … Various disadvantages of white phosphorus are discussed below, but one which is particular to smoke-screening is "pillaring". Napalm was infamously used by US forces in the Vietnam War and are mixtures of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical which can ignite and stick to the skin. However, the use against military targets outside civilian areas is not explicitly banned by any treaty. The Pentagon's admission - despite earlier denials - that US troops used white phosphorus as a weapon in Falluja last year is more than a public relations issue - … When exposed to air, it spontaneously ignites and is oxidized rapidly to phosphorus pentoxide. The use of white phosphorus has a particularly brutal history. In the interwar years, the U.S. Army trained using white phosphorus, by artillery shell and air bombardment. Script error[clarification needed] For instance, concerning the U.S. use of white phosphorus in Iraq, the British Liberal Democrat foreign affairs spokesman Sir Menzies Campbell, said, Within the US Army, there appears to be conflicting advice on the use of WP against humans. During World War II, white phosphorus mortar bombs, shells, rockets and grenades were used extensively by American, Commonwealth, and, to a lesser extent, Japanese forces, in both smoke-generating and antipersonnel roles. In practice, the droplets quickly reach a range of sizes suitable for scattering visible light and then start to dissipate from wind or convection. It came in two versions, one with a red cap intended to be thrown by hand, and a slightly stronger bottle with a green cap, intended to be launched from the Northover projector (a crude 2.5 inch blackpowder grenade launcher). [5], The accepted lethal dose when white phosphorus is ingested orally is 1 mg per kg of body weight, although the ingestion of as little as 15 mg has resulted in death. In addition to its offensive capabilities, white phosphorus is also a highly efficient smoke-producing agent, burning quickly and causing an instant bank of smoke. [2] As an incendiary weapon, white phosphorus burns fiercely and can set cloth, fuel, ammunition and other combustibles on fire, and cause serious burns or death. The Associated Press reported that an 8-year-old Afghan girl, Razia, was injured when a white phosphorus shell ripped through her home in the Tagab Valley of Kapisa province in June 2009. Red phosphorus, comparatively harmless, is used in matches. As a result, smoke-producing white phosphorus munitions are very common, particularly as smoke grenades for infantry, loaded in grenade launchers on tanks and other armored vehicles, or as part of the ammunition allotment for artillery or mortars. 9% min as 150ppm max s 50ppm max origin vietnam packing net 21. Napalm is an incendiary mixture of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical (usually gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel).The title is a blend of the names of two of the constituents of the original thickening and gelling agents: co-precipitated aluminium salts of naphthenic acid and palmitic acid. Weight-for-weight, phosphorus is the most effective smoke-screening agent known, for two reasons: firstly, it absorbs most of the screening mass from the surrounding atmosphere and secondly, the smoke particles are an aerosol, a mist of liquid droplets which are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light. Britain in Falklands. In some cases, burns are limited to areas of exposed skin because the smaller WP particles do not burn completely through personal clothing before being consumed. [4] There are reports of individuals with a history of oral ingestion who have passed phosphorus-laden stool ("smoking stool syndrome").[6]. [10] The OPCW, using member votes, creates Schedules of chemical weapons or dual-use chemicals of concern and white phosphorus is not in any of these schedules. These create smoke screens to mask movement, position or the origin of fire from the enemy. WP is a colorless to yellow translucent wax-like substance with a pungent, garlic-like smell. This mixture was known as "Fenian fire" and allegedly was used by disgruntled itinerant workers in Australia to cause delayed destruction of shabby sleeping quarters. The Program for Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research, "IHL and White Phosphorus Munitions" Accessed at. On August 5th, a German woman accidentally set her coat on fire with decades-old white phosphorus… News about White Phosphorus, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. White phosphorus smoke irritates the eyes, mucous membranes of the nose, and respiratory tract in moderate concentrations, while higher concentrations may produce severe burns. [4] These weapons are particularly dangerous to exposed people because white phosphorus continues to burn unless deprived of oxygen or until it is completely consumed. Because of the great weight efficiency of white phosphorus smoke, it is particularly suited for applications where weight is highly restricted, such as hand grenades and mortar bombs. Israel pounded Lebanon and Gaza with it (in 2009 in high density population areas including a school with 1,600 children and a UN building). 76 or Special Incendiary Phosphorus grenade, which consisted of a glass bottle filled with a mixture similar to Fenian fire, plus some latex (see also Molotov cocktail, Greek fire). "White phosphorus (P4) is the elemental form of phosphorus used in smoke munitions. Several countries, most notably Israel, are not signatories to Protocol III. The convention defines a "toxic chemical" as a chemical "which through its chemical action on life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals" (CWC, II). White phosphorus, yellow phosphorus or simply tetraphosphorus (P 4) exists as molecules made up of four atoms in a tetrahedral structure. In 1916, during an intense ideological struggle over conscription for the First World War, twelve members of the I.W.W., a radical union of workers who opposed conscription, were arrested and convicted for using or plotting to use incendiary materials, including phosphorus. Then, as now, it was touted Tactically this may be counteracted by using white phosphorus to get a screen quickly, but then following up with emission type screening agents for a more persistent screen. White phosphorus … Phosphorus burns carry a greater risk of mortality than other forms of burns due to the absorption of phosphorus into the body through the burned area, resulting in liver, heart and kidney damage, and in some cases multiple organ failure. Late in the war, some of these bombs used white phosphorus (about 1–200 grams) in place of magnesium as the igniter for their flammable mixtures. The molecule is described as consisting of six single P–P bonds. Other articles where White phosphorus is discussed: chemical industry: Phosphorus: White phosphorus is used in rodent poison and by the military for smoke generation. White phosphorus grenades were used in Vietnam for destroying Viet Cong tunnel complexes as they would burn up all oxygen and suffocate the enemy soldiers sheltering inside. The rounds exploded with a huge puff of white smoke from the hotly burning phosphorus, and were used as marking rounds or incendiary rounds. 3.2 kilograms of smoke for every kilogram of WP); it may absorb more because phosphoric acid and its variants are hygroscopic. It has been used in the past as a pesticide and in fireworks. ... Vietnam '67 Vietnam: The Chemical War. Also a type of aerial bomb. However, no casualties have been recorded from the effects of white phosphorus smoke alone in combat operations and there are no confirmed deaths resulting from exposure to phosphorus smoke.Script error[citation needed] The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has set an acute inhalation Minimum Risk Level (MRL) for white phosphorus smoke of 0.02 mg/m³, the same as fuel oil fumes. Because WP is also pyrophoric, most munitions of this type have a simple burster charge to split open the casing and spray fragments of WP through the air, where they ignite spontaneously and leave a trail of rapidly thickening smoke behind each particle. In 1940, when the invasion of Britain seemed imminent, the phosphorus firm of Albright and Wilson suggested that the British government use a material similar to Fenian fire in several expedient incendiary weapons. Given time, the droplets will continue to absorb more water, growing larger and more dilute until they reach equilibrium with the local water vapour pressure. "[14] However, the 11-year-old ST 100-3 Battle Book, a student text published by the US Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth states that "It is against the law of land warfare to employ WP against personnel targets. It is not illegal under international law for … The New York Times has documented that, as recently as October 2011, U.S. and other international forces in Afghanistan were using white phosphorus … In an 2005 interview with RAI, Peter Kaiser, spokesman for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (an organization overseeing the CWC and reporting directly to the UN General Assembly), questioned whether the weapon should fall under the convention's provisions: Kaiser was a staff spokesman for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. 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